Halachically Speaking: Teaching Torah to Women

Authored by Moishe Dovid Lebovits. Although throughout the ages there were Jewish women who were learned and revered1 the concept of formal education for women is barely a century old.2 Before this time, they would learn whatever was necessary from their parents.3 Girls generally did not go out of the home, and were often illiterate.4 The modern school system teaches many subjects to the girls, including Chumash, Halachah, Navi and Mishnah. Some even teach Gemara.5 Girls learn Chumash in depth with Ramban, and study more halachah than boys in yeshivah.6 The Bais Yaakov movement was spearheaded by Sarah Schenirer with just twenty-five girls in 1917,7 as a reaction to many factors8 which had changed the status quo.9 Since then, hundreds of girls’ schools have been created.10


In this article, we will discuss today’s practice of teaching Torah to women. We will address what is permitted to be taught, whether it makes a difference if she learns herself, and whether this is considered learning Torah. These and other questions will be dealt with below.11


The pasuk says, V’limaditem osam es b’neichem,12 you shall teach them to your sons. The Gemara13 infers from the word “b’neichem” that there is no mitzvah to teach Torah to a daughter.14

The opinion of many poskim is that women are exempt from learning Torah.15 Women also do not have an obligation to teach their sons Torah.16


One possible reason is that the woman is the mainstay of the home. If she were obligated to learn Torah, she could not fulfill her critical role of running the home and raising the children.17

Women Who Learn

Although women do not have a mitzvah to learn Torah, they may choose to learn, and will be rewarded like any other mitzvah which they perform voluntarily.18 More importantly, they are rewarded for enabling their husband and children to learn Torah.19

Sources Against Women Learning

The Mishnah20 maintains that teaching women Torah is like teaching them “tiflos,” frivolousness.21 The Mishnah does not clarify this comment. The Gemara22 explains that learning Torah can cause a person to become cunning.23 This is brought in halachah as well.24 The reason for this is that women were not learned for the most part and they would not know how to handle the knowledge of Torah25 since Torah Sheb’al Peh is deep with reasons and sevaros.26

It is noteworthy that the Torah Temimah27 argues that this concept only applies to a girl under age twelve. Once she is older, she will be able to concentrate on what she learns.

Torah Sheb’ksav vs. Torah Sheb’al Peh

The Rambam28 says that the concept that women who learn Torah is like teaching them “tiflos” applies to Torah Sheb’al Peh (Mishnah, Gemara, etc.).29 Ideally, one should not teach them Torah Sheb’ksav (Torah, Nevi’im) either, but if one did then it is not considered tiflos.30 The restriction is limited to learning it in depth, but learning basic Torah Sheb’ksav is permitted.31

The Tur maintains that the main restriction applies to Torah Sheb’ksav.32 Torah Sheb’al Peh is permitted.33 This is the exact opposite of the Rambam above; nonetheless, the main opinion is like the Rambam.34 It is interesting to point out that the Shulchan Aruch Harav does not mention an issur of women to learn Torah Sheb’ksav. Nevertheless, it would still be forbidden in depth.35

The Tur explains that most women can’t handle Torah since their minds are not fit for it.36 This is brought by others as well.37

Women Showing Interest

If a woman wants to learn by herself,38 then she is showing interest and then it is permitted.39 The Prisha40 explains that she is taken out of the category of “most” women (see above) who can’t handle it and it is permitted. This is brought by others as well.41 It is difficult to learn alone, and if she is willing to devote herself to this, she will not come to cunning behavior.42

Learned Women

Throughout the ages there existed women who were learned and righteous.43 Some examples are Sarah, Rivkah, Rochel, Leah, Yocheved, Miriam, Devorah, the wife of Manoach, and Chanah.44 Bruryah45 learned 300 halachos from 300 different rabbis. We find that the grandmother of the Maharsha taught halachah to advanced students from behind a partition.46 In more recent times, the wife of Harav Isser Zalman Meltzer zt”l edited her husband’s work on the Rambam. There are also stories off interaction between the Mekor Baruch and Rayna Basya (daughter of Rav Yitzchok Yitzchak M’Veolozhin).47

Some say that these women were permitted to learn because they were self-motivated (see above).48 Others say that they only learned relevant halachos.49

Halachos Relevant to Women

Although women should not be taught Torah Sheb’al Peh, they may learn or be taught the halachos which are relevant to them.50 This is especially important as detailed in the Mishnah51 that an empty person cannot fear sin and an unlearned person cannot be a chassid. The custom was to have speeches for women on topics related to them.52 The Aruch Hashulchan53 maintains that the custom was for women to learn these halachos by heart and not from text.54

The Sefer Chassidim55 says that one needs to teach women relevant halachos.56 If a woman does not learn hilchos Shabbos, how will she know what and what not to do? It is reported that Harav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld zt”l learned the Orach Chaim section of Shulchan Aruch with his wife for a half hour every day.57

Relevant halachos include Niddah, Tevilah, Yichud, Kashrus, and Melichah58(not today since women don’t do this at home). Also included are mitzvos lo sa’asei and mitzvos asei which are relevant to women,59k asho’ a



’by hceirer60 It is clear that learning Torah leads to more fear of Hashem, and it can be argued that perhaps the entire issur is no longer relevant. If so, teaching any of the Torah would be permitted for women (see below).61


As mentioned above, today’s girls are highly educated, fill professional positions such as doctors and lawyers, and are thirsty for knowledge. The streets are also filled with secular objectives which are not meant for a Jewish girl.62 As such, the fact is that a higher Jewish education must be offered tofor them. This was already discussed in the times of the Choafetz Chaim zt”l63 , who wrote, “The entire issur mentioned above to teach girls Torah was in earlier days when all girls stayed close to their parents, and the family tradition was strong. However, today girls do not stay close to home, so it is an important mitzvah to teach girls Chumash, Nevi’im, Kesuvim, Mussar learned from Chazal, Maeseches Avos, Sefer Menoraos Hama’or, etc.”64

Others maintain that “most” women cannot handle Torah so they cannot learn. However, if girls show an interest and willingness to learn, then it is permitted for them to learn even Torah Sheb’aal Peh. This is apparent from the fact that women today learn other areas of education in depth and are very studious about it.65

Based on this logic, it is clear that the Chaofetz Chaim did not permit something which was forbidden for years, but rather ruled that the issur does not apply to today’s generation of girls; therefore, it is possible that even Torah Sheb’aal Pehl would be permitted as well.66

The Satmar Rebbe said that the Chaofetz Chaim’s leniency is limited to Torah Sheb’eksav, which was originally not taught to girls. This also includes relevant halachos, but learning explanations on Chumash is not permitted,67 nor is Torah Sheb’aal Peh.68

HaishaV’Hamitzvahs page 263,


Included in permitted topics for women is Mussar such as Maeseches Avos. This brings one to good middos etc.69 It is reported that the Chassam Sofer learned lessons from Chazal with his daughters.70 It is a good idea for girls to learn Orchos Tzaddikim.71

Rambanm on Chumash

The vast majority of girls’ schools learn Chumash with Ramban in depth, as well as Rashi and other commentaries. Some say this is against Hhalachah since this this considered Torah Sheba’al Peh and has no relevance to the girls, since it does not inspire them to have better middos. This would apply according to those who say even today girls can’t learn Torah Sheb’aal Peh.72

According to the lenient opinions, it would be permitted. Additionally, some say that Ramban73 is considered Torah Sheb’ksav, as it can be considered lessons from Chazal.74


Women should not learn Mishnayos as this is included in Torah Sheb’al Peh (see below).75 However, it is permitted to learn those Rashis in Chumash that quote Mishnayos, even if one wishes to be stringent and not teach women Mishnayos in general.76


As mentioned, there are some girls’ institutions which study Gemara. Many poskim prohibit this practice.77

Harav Yosef Ber Soloveitchik zt”l78 provided a Gemara class in Maimonides in Boston, as well as setting up the class in Gemara in Stern College.79 Some explain the rationale that today women are offered secular education in universities at the highest degree. Therefore, we must ensure that the same level of learning in Jewish studies is offered as well.80 As such, it is permitted to learn the Gemara as a background to the relevant halachos.81

Others argue that it is not practical, as it consumes too much time.82

Brachah for a Girl

It is reported that when people came to Rebbetzin Kanievsky a”h for a brachah on a newborn girl, she would say, “Tizkeh l’Torah,” since women learn today. Therefore, the brachah was l’Torah and not just merely a brachah to marry a ben Torah.83

Mixed Classes

While on the topic of Torah education for girls, it is fitting to discuss the concept of mixed classes.

The Meiri84 says that schools that teach a profession should teach men and women separately. Many poskim say that this also applies to limudei kodesh, and boys and girls must be taught separately.85

It is known that in for a variety of reasons earlier out of town schools had to be set up with mixed classes.86 Many day schools that were established decades ago were serving children who had come from non-observant families. In the absence of a co-educational institution many of those children would have certainly received either no or little Jewish education. The demographics of many neighborhoods have changed over the past few decades, resulting in many of these same institutions serving an exclusively Orthodox parent body that would send their children to a yeshivah regardless of the availability of a co-educational institution.87 Many out–of-town communities have a very small amount of children per class, and if kept separate it would be fiscally impossible to maintain the school.88 Some suggest that when the girls’ education will be jeopardized if they are taught separately, then it is better to have them mixed with the boys. However, each case needs to be judged on its own.89 This is particularly true today, when the education in girls’ schools is of the highest quality. Furthermore, mixing classes today may lead to things which were non-issues in the early to mid-1900s.

The Sefer Chassidim90 says not to mix boys and girls together since they may sin.

The Shevet Halevi91 maintains that a school that has mixed classes from five years of age until eleven have talmidei chachamim who have yirei Shamayim faculty but perhaps they were not listened to when they suggested to have separate classes for boys and girls. On the other hand, he notes that mixed classes make the children accustomed to the opposite gender and this is not correct.92

Harav Moshe Feinstein zt”l93 maintained that even very young children should be taught separately. However, if it is hard to have separate classes for the very young, one can be lenient.94 The minhag seems to be that we are lenient for nursery age children.95 Those schools that teach both boys and girls together are not acting correctly unless there is no alternative.96

Male Teaching Females and Vice Versa

A single male97 may not teach girls,98 since the mothers of the child will come to school and it may come to a michshal.99 The problem is only on a set schedule, but it is permitted on an occasional basis.100 Today, it is not an issue, as the children are delivered by bus and carpools.101 Therefore, teaching boys who come on their own is also permitted.102

A married man may teach boys even if his wife is not with him while teaching,103 since when one is married he is unlikely to come to a michshal. In addition, we can apply the heter of the previous paragraph, that the entire concern does not apply today.104

The poskim mention that a woman (even married)105 should not teach boys since the fathers come to bring the children to school and there would be an issue of yichud.106 Here, too, this is not an issue in a school setting107 where many people are present at the school.108 In either case, if it is not in a pressing situation females should not teach teenage boys, and there is no difference if the teacher is young or old.109

Some frown upon even married men teaching girls over bas mitzvah.110 Today, the practice is that even Rrabbaonim teach young girls, and it seems to be an accepted practice. The fact is that they teach the girls halachah, which cannot be taught as well by other people.111 Theoretically, a mechitzah should be made between the teachers and girls since he is looking at the girls while teaching.112 this is not the custom nor is it practical.

Lectures for Women in a

Some frown upon having lectures for women in a . Rather, they should have it in a side room or in the women’s section.

1 See Maseches Bava Basra 119; Pesachim 62b; Sanhedrin 94b; Tosafos, Maseches Niddah 49b “kol.” Refer to Tradition 17:3, page 79.

2 An entire book entitled “And All Your Children Shall Be Learned” is devoted to Women and the Study of Torah in Jewish Law and History.

3 The girls would stay in the home until age 12-14 and then get married. These girls would be grandparents by thirty years old. In the olden days girls did not need to learn Torah since they were good-hearted but things changed as they got influenced by outside factors. See Aruch Hashulchan, Y.D. 246:20.


5and Maimonides

6 This is an odd phenomenon since boys learn much more than girls but most is not focused on halachah l’ma’aseh (Harav Herschel Shachter shlit”a).

7 In the years 1840-1855, in the United States, education was the responsibility of the synagouges, since the Jews feared the teaching of Christianity in the public-school system (page 244). In 1908 when there were almost two million Jews in the United States, of whom probably three-quarters were eastern European immigrants and their children, only about 28 percent of the Jewish children of school age were receiving any form of religious educarion, and a quarter of these were in the almost useless Sunday schools (And All Your Children Shall Be Learned page 246).

8 One factor was the fact that Jewish girls were not getting a Torah education but rather allowed to go to secular schools. Therefore, they started leaving the fold (see Tradition 17:3, pages 78-79; Great Jewish Women; Beis Avi 4:142). See Chinuch Yisrael 2, pages 646-647.

9 For more on this fascinating topic see ArtScroll’s book entitled Judaiscope “Sarah Schenirer: The Mother of Generations.” Also see Great Jewish Women pages 244-245; Tradition 28:1, pages 29-31. By the time Sarah Schenirer died in 1935 there were close to 300 Bais Yaakov schools in Poland with a student population of 35,585 (Refer to And All Your Children Shall Be Learned pages 280-281). With the young girls learning Torah, this in turn made many of the previously non-religious parents into frum Jews in the USA in the 1900s.

10 In 1948 in the USA there were only two girls’ schools. Shulamis School was started in the 1920s. Stern College for girls started in 1954.

11 Refer to Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 27-56. See Chayei Moshe, Y.D. 1:10.

12 Devarim 11:19.

13 Maseches Kiddushin 29b; see Maseches Kiddushin 34a, Rashi “mah,” Tosafos “gavra”; Tosafos, Maseches Shabbos 32b “mikra.”

14 See Rashi, Maseches Kiddushin 29b “d’lo.”

15 Rosh, Maseches Kiddushin 1:42; Rif page 12a; Rambam, Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:1; Shulchan Aruch 246:6; Smag, Asei 12. Whether one may pay for girls’ school with ma’aser money see Igros Moshe, Y.D. 2:113; Beis Avi 1:99.

16 Maseches Kiddushin 29b; Rambam, Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:1; Kesef Mishnah.








24 Bach, Y.D. 246; Tur; Shulchan Aruch, Y.D. 246:6; Birchei Yosef 7.

25 See Tiferes Yisrael, Maseches Sotah 3:4.

26 See Torah Temimah, Devarim 11:48.

27 Devarim 11:48. See Hadorom 12, pages 15-17. Refer to Mekor Baruch 4, page 982.

28 Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:13.

29 See Gra, O.C. 47:14.

30 Shulchan Aruch, Y.D. 246:6. See Kesef Mishnah, Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:13; Aruch Hashulchan, Y.D. 246:19. Refer to Maseches Chagigah 3a; Nedarim 35b; Tosafos, Maseches Sotah 21b “ben.”

31 Taz, Y.D. 246:4. Refer to Tzitz Eliezer 9:6. See Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 52-53; Mishnas Yosef 6:15 which says even on the simple level of Torah Sheb’ksav they are only permitted to learn what is relevant to them. See Gra, O.C. 47:14.

32 See Prisha, Y.D. 246:16.

33 See ibid.

34 Kesef Mishnah, Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:13; Beis Yosef, Y.D. 246; Aruch Hashulchan 19. See Bach, Y.D. 246.

35 See Tzitz Eliezer 9:6. Refer to Tov Ayin 4.

36 Y.D. 246. See Torah Temimah, Devarim 11:48. Refer to Meiri, Maseches Sotah 20a.

37 Shulchan Aruch, Y.D. 246:6.

38 Included in this can perhaps be women learning with a chavrusa (Ssee Hadorom 61, page 12).

39 Prisha, Y.D. 246:15; Asei Lecha Rav 2:52; Tzitz Eliezer 9:6; Hadorom 61, page 12; Bnei Banim 3:12; Mishneh Halachos 10:161. See Shevet Halevi 8:211. Also see Shevet Halevi 6:150; Teshuvos V’hanhagos 4:288.

40 Y.D. 246:15.

41 Torah Temimah, Devarim 11:48. See Ohr Yisrael 9, pages 206-207. Refer to Shevet Halevi 8:211.

42 See Ohr Yisrael 8, :page 54.

43 For a detailed discussion on this see Mekor Baruch 4, pages 978-980; Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 51-72 in depth; Journal of Halachah and Contemporary Society 9, page 25, footnote 16; Noam 12, pages 78-79.

44 See Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 57-58.

45 Maseches Pesachim 62b. See Tosefta, Maseches Keilim (Bava Metzia) 1:6; Maharil 199.

46 Maharshal 30.

47 Mekor Baruch 4, pages 975-976. On this see Tradition 35:1, pages 55-69 in great depth. Also see And All Your Children Shall Be Learned page 253. For more examples of learned women see And All Your Children Shall Be Learned pages 249-250.

48 Refer to V’ein Lamo Michshol 7, pages 318-320. See Hadorom 61, page 13; Tradition 17:3, pages 79-80.

49 Refer to Shevet Hakehasi 2:269.

50 Bach, Y.D. 246; Prisha, Y.D. 246:16; Rema 6; Aruch Hashulchan 19; Yufei L’lev, Y.D. 3:246:17-19; Pele Yoetz, Chinuch; Igros Moshe, Y.D. 2:109; Zekan Aharon 2:66; Divrei Yoel, Y.D. 84; V’yoel Moshe pages 436-438, 444; Chinuch Yisrael 2, page 489. Refer to Divrei Yatziv, Y.D. 139. See Mishnah Berurah 187:9. This is why women make Birchos HaTorah. See Beis Yosef, O.C. 47; Shulchan Aruch, O.C. 47:14; Biur Halachah “nashim”; Aruch Hashulchan, O.C. 47:25. See Chorev (Harav Samson Raphael Hirsch zt”l) 75. Refer to Halichos Shlomo, Tefillah 6:4, footnote 7; V’yoel Moshe pages 448-449; TeshuvosV’hanhagos 2:35. See Gra, O.C. 47:14.

51 Maseches Avos 2:6.

52 Shulchan Aruch Harav, Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:14.

53 Y.D. 246:19.

54 See Shevet Halevi 6:150.

55 313.

56 Refer to Mikveh Hamayim Y.D. 3:21.

57 Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchasah 32:13.

58 See Yehudah Ya’aleh, Y.D. 1:48; Hisvadaas 5750, 3, pages 171-173..

59 Shulchan Aruch Harav, Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:14.

60 Refer to And All Your Children Shall Be Learned pages 278-279 regarding the Rabbonim who backed the Bais Yaakov movement; Moznaim L’Mishpat 1:42.

61 For more on this see Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 27-50 in great depth.

62 See ibid. pages 31-33; Teshuvos V’hanhagos 5:68.

63 Likutei Halachos, Maseches Sotah 21a. See Tzitz Eliezer 9:6; Ohr Yisrael 34, page 129 quoting this as the opinion of the Chazon Ish zt”l; Meikitz Nirdamim pages 54-55.

64 See Ohr Yisrael 9, page 203-209;, 11, pages 203-208. Refer to Moznayim L’mishpat 1:42; Halichos Bas Yisrael 9:6.

65 Asei Lecha Rav 2:52; Mayim Chaim 2:89; Zekan Aharon 2:66.

66 For more on this see Ohr Yisrael 8, page 55.

67 See Vaya’an Yosef 1:142 about a chassidishe girl being taught in Lashon Kodesh versus Yiddish.

68V’yoel Moshe pages 451-452; See Tradition 28:1, pages 82-93; 11-20:212, page 163-172, 179-202 in depth. Refer to The Satmar Rebbe (biography) pages 164-165. See Chinuch Yisrael 2:7:4, page 487, 649.

69 Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:87; Shevet Halevi

70 Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchasah 32:14.

71 Orchos Tzaddikim 1, page 194:21. See there where he maintains they should not learn Chovos Halevavos.

72 Shevet Halevi 6:150. See Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 55-56. The custom in Satmar is not to teach the girls even Rashi on Chumash (see The Rebbe: The Extraordinary Life and Worldview of Rabbeinu Yoel Teitelbaum, the Satmar Rebbe pages 474-475). See Massei Ish 5, pages 59-60; Chinuch Yisrael 2, pages 487-488.

73 The same applies to the Radak and Malbim etc. (Emes L’Yaakov, Y.D. 246, footnote 122).

74 Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 55-56; Emes L’Yaakov ibid., Y.D. 246, footnote 122.

75 Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:87.

76 See Orchos Rabbeinu 1, page 193:20. Refer to Zekan Aharon 2:66.

77 Shevet Halevi 6:150; V’yoel Moshe pages 439-440; Ohr Yisrael 8, pages 22-23. Refer to Shevet Hakehasi 2:269 which forbids women to learn Gemara by listening to a Daf Yomi shiur even on a CD etc. See notes on 246:7, note 13 against women learning Gemara. See book entitled Women and the Study of Torah (Wolowelsky). See Orchos Rabbeinu 1, page 193:20 quoting the opinion of the Chazon Ish zt”l who did permit it once in a while. Also see Massei Ish 2, pages 31-32, footnote 2. See Orchos Rabbeinu ibid. page 194:23 which brings that the Steipler’s rebbetzin would look into a Gemara for him since he could not see well and read to him what it said. See opinions of Harav Aharon Kotler zt”l and Harav Yaakov Kamenetsky zt”l quoted in Divrei Chachamim

78 M’peninei Harav page 214.

79 Women, Jewish Law, and ModernityTradition 17:3, pages 80-83. See Halakhic Positions of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik volume 6 (Ziegler) page 103; The Rav Thinking Aloud page 116. See Tradition 24:1, pages 28-37.

80 See Tradition 30:4, pages 98-99; Man of Halacha Man of Faith (Genack) page 113; Ten Da’at 3, pages 7-8. This is available at www.lookstein.org/articles/torah_study_for_women.htm. Refer to Hadorom 61, pages 12-19; Bnei Banim 3:12. See Hadorom 61, pages 33-34. See Tradition 28:3, pages 32-33.

81zt”l as expressed by Harav Twersky shlit”a (thank you to Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz shlit”a for showing me this source). See www.torahweb.org/torah/special/2003/rtwe_JA_women.html. Refer to Tradition 28:3, pages 31-33. See hirhurim.blogpsot.com; www.torahmusings.com/2005/08/women-learning-gemara-ii/. Perhaps if women are learning Gemara they should learn the parts which are relevant to their observance of mitzvos. See Hadorom 61, pages 40-41. Refer to Noam 3, pages 131-134.

82 Ibid. pages 116-117.

83 Rebbetzin Kanievsky page 417 (thank you to Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz shlit”a for providing me with this source).

84 Maseches Kiddushin 80b, page 352. In the footnote ibid. he questions why this is not brought in the Rambam or Aruch.

85 Shevet Halevi, O.C.; Yabi, E.H. 4:4, 10:23. See Yalkut Yosef on Rosh Hashanah 13, page 19:1.

86 Refer to Nefesh Haravwww.jewishideas.org/print/543.

87 See article from Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz on www.yutorah.org

88 See www.lookstein.org. See Shevet Halevi 10:178; Yechaveh Da’as 4:46; Yabia Omer, E.H. 4:4.

89 See article from Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz on www.yutorah.org in depth.

90 168.

91 1:29.

92 E.H. 5:206.

93 Igros Moshe, Y.D. 1:137. See Igros Moshe, Y.D. 2:104, 3:73, 78, 79, 4:28. Refer to V’ein Lamo Michshol 8, pages 111-112.

94 Igros Moshe ibid. See B’mechitzas Rabbeinu pages 88-89 which is lenient until age nine in certain situations. Refer to Yabia Omer, Y.D. 10:23. See Hamayin 29, page 33.

95 Harav Yisroel Belsky zt”l.

96 See Asei Lecha Rav 2:60.

97 Rashi, Maseches Kiddushin 82a “lo,” Tosafos “lo.” See Beis Shmuel, E.H. 22:19; Taz 11; Pischei Teshuvah 13. Refer to Chelkas Mechokek 21. See Chinuch Yisrael 2, page 657 about a non-married person working.

98 See Beis Shmuel, E.H. 22:20; Chachmas Adam 126:10.

99 Refer to Maseches Kiddushin 82a; Rambam, Hilchos Issurei Biah 22:13; Talmud Torah 2:4; Shulchan Aruch, E.H. 22:20, Y.D. 225:20; Beis Shmuel, E.H. 22:11; Chachmas Adam 126:10. Refer to Rashi, Maseches Kiddushin 82 “ma’ei tama.” See Beis Avi 4:142. Refer to Shevet Halevi 3:183, 5:206.

100 Tzitz Eliezer 6:40:27:10.

101 See Bach, Y.D. 245; Aruch Hashulchan, Y.D. 245:20; Tzitz Eliezer 6:40:26; Shevet Halevi 3:183; M’Beis Levi 18, page 43. See Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:73. Refer to Minchas Ish 2:22:1.

102 Ibid. 2:22:7.

103 Refer to Rambam, Hilchos Issurei Biah 22:13.

104 Igros Moshe, E.H. 4:65:13; Tzitz Eliezer 6:40:27:20; Minchas Ish 2:22:3, 8. In regard to a rebbi whose wife does not live with him due to arguments see Minchas Ish 2:22:4.

105 Beis Shmuel, E.H. 22:22; Chelkas Michokek 21. Refer to B’mareh Habezek 2, page 85 about a woman working in a religious school and the obligation to cover her hair.

106 Maseches Kiddushin 82a; Rambam, Hilchos Issurei Biah 22:13; see Talmud Torah 2:4; Rosh, Maseches Kiddushin 4:26; Shulchan Aruch, E.H. 22:20, Y.D. 225:21; Chachmas Adam 126:10. Refer to Taz, Y.D. 245:7. Also see Tzitz Eliezer 6:40:27 in depth.

107 This is not the case in a playgroup; see Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:73.

108 Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:73; Tzitz Eliezer 6:40:27, 14:97; Shevet Halevi 5:206; M’Beis Levi 18, page 43; Minchas Ish 2:23:6-7. See Shevet Halevi 4:16. Also see Teshuras Shai 1:170. Refer to opinion of Harav Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg zt”l quoted in Divrei Chachamim page 255:44. See opinion of Harav Elyashiv zt”l quoted in Halichos Bas Yisrael 7:23, footnote 44. Some maintain not to have women teach boys over the age of 9 (see Halichos Bas Yisrael 7:23; Lehoros Nassan 7:100; Tzitz Eliezer 6:20:27:19, 14:97).

109 Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:73. Refer to M’Beis Levi 4, pages 75-78.

110 Refer to Tzitz Eliezer 6:40:26:10; Minchas Ish 2:22:9, footnote 9 in depth, 23:8, footnote 8. See Teshuras Shai, kamma 170. Refer to Sefer Chassidim 313; Knesses Hagedolah, E.H. 22:12.

111 See Beis Avi 3:40. Refer to ibid. where he frowns upon a male teaching older women nothing relating to Torah. Refer to Teshuras Shai 1:170.

112 Refer to Az Nidberu 12:45; Beis Avi 3:40.

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