Halachically Speaking: Drinking on Purim

alcoholBy Rabbi Moishe D. Lebovits. For some reason, people think that drinking is acceptable at certain times,[1] such as on Simchas Torah, at a Shalom Zochor, at a wedding, and on Purim.

Many people become intoxicated by drinking wine or whiskey on Purim. Is there a mitzvah to get drunk? What are the reasons for drinking on Purim? What are the parameters? Is wine preferred to whiskey? Does it apply to women? Can one fulfill the mitzvah while asleep? When should one drink? These and other issues will be addressed in this issue. We will also discuss the halachic sources for drinking too much wine on Purim and throughout the year.[2]

Introduction – Wine

Wine is associated with many aspects of Jewish life. Shabbos[3] and all the major Yom Tovim, including Rosh Hashanah, requires kiddush with wine. Wine is a drink that “gladdens the heart.”[4] Wine has medicinal properties as well.[5]

Wine in the Torah and Chazal

The posuk[6] tells us that Noach planted a vineyard…and he drank wine, got drunk and uncovered himself.[7] Lot’s daughters gave their father wine to drink so that he would get drunk.[8] Nadav and Avihu are said to have drunk wine when they offered their “strange fire” in the Mishkan.[9] The Medrash[10] says when a person starts drinking wine he feels innocent as a lamb and as complacent as a sheep. After he has a few drinks, he feels as if he is strong like a lion. When he has gone too far he becomes like a pig, wallowing in his own filth. When he becomes drunk he is like a monkey. He thinks he is smart, witty and clever, when in reality he is being laughed at by others. The Gemorah[11] says the tree Adom ate from was a grapevine, because nothing brings grief to this world like wine. The Rambam[12] says it is impossible to serve Hashem with silliness, lightheadedness, and while being drunk. One who is drunk is like he is worshipping avodah zarah.[13] In addition, the Rambam[14] says that one who gets drunk is a sinner, ugly, and loses his wisdom. One is not allowed to enter the Ohel Moed in a drunken state.[15] The Gemorah[16] says that wine was created for two purposes, to comfort mourners and to give the wicked their reward in this world so that they may get their full punishment in the World to Come.

On the other hand, the Gemorah[17] says happiness comes from consuming wine and meat. The Tana D’bei Eliyahu (Zuta)[18] says that, “Wine gives pleasure to old people, makes their hearts happy, refreshes their souls, and illuminates their eyes.” Wine also has a positive effect on the brain and the thinking process.[19] The Gemorah[20] says that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.

Drinking on Purim

The Gemorah[21] says that one is obligated to get drunk[22] on Purim until the point that he does not know the difference between cursed Haman and bless Mordechai. The Gemorah also relates the following story: Rabbah and Rav Zeirah had their Purim seuda together. Rabbah got drunk and killed Rav Zeirah. They prayed for Rav Zeirah and he lived. The next year, when asked to come over for the seuda, Rav Zeirah did not go because one cannot rely on a miracle every time.

This seems to be an odd story; should it be taken literally?[23]

The Maharsha[24] explains that Rabbah did not literally slit Rav Zeirah’s throat. Rather, he kept giving Rav Zeirah drinks until he became sick. Rav Zeirah’s refusal the next year was to avoid a situation of over-indulgence which can be fatal. Obviously, drinking wine is very dangerous if done without a cheshbon.[25]

Harav Shlomo Zalman zt”l[26] suggests that Rabbah embarrassed Rav Zeirah, which is akin to murder.

Halachic Opinions

There are some poskim who maintain that we do not follow the apparent ruling of this incident, and one should not get drunk on Purim.[27] The Meiri[28] says that there is no mitzvah to get drunk and act in a frivolous manner on Purim. However, the majority of poskim do in fact concur with the incident and maintain that one should drink enough wine on Purim to cause drunkenness.[29] The Pri Chadash[30] says that Rav Zeirah should have replied that he will drink a little without actually getting drunk. From the fact that he did not say this we can deduce the halacha that one should get drunk on Purim and the story is valid. The Bach[31] says that even the lenient opinion agrees that one should drink more than usual on Purim.

Drinking More Than Usual

The Pri Chadash[32] says that in our weak generation one should follow the lenient approach and only drink a little more than usual. This opinion is the opinion of other poskim as well.[33]

Not Knowing the Difference Between Cursed Haman and Bless Mordechai

As mentioned above, one should drink until he cannot tell the difference between cursed Haman and bless Mordechai.[34] There are many explanations as to what this means.[35] The Bach[36] understands this as a literal statement, and other poskim agree.[37]

Others say that this comment in the Gemorah should not be taken literally.[38] One opinion says that one should drink to the point that he cannot calculate that the gematria of “cursed is Haman” (in Hebrew) is equivalent to “bless Mordechai“(in Hebrew).[39]

The Taz[40] explains that we have to give thanks to Hashem for saving us from Haman’s evil plot. We must also thank Him for the additional kindness of elevating Mordechai. We should drink until the point that we cannot discern between these two acts of kindness.

The Sefas Emes[41] says one does not have an obligation to be drunk to the point of not knowing…. However, one is supposed to busy himself with party on Purim and as long as he knows the difference between… he has to party and after that point he does not. However, one has fulfilled his drinking even before he reaches the point where he does not know….

Harav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach zt”l says people think that the miracle of saving the Jews was great and the fall of Haman was not a big miracle. Therefore, we drink until we do not know the difference between the two and they are both the same great miracle.[42]

Harav Moshe Shternbuch Shlita[43] says the following: there are different time periods in life. Sometimes Haman is on top and sometimes Haman is on the bottom. Sometimes our enemies beat us and the hand of Hahsem is hidden. Sometimes it is “bless Mordechai” and Hashem’s hand is visible, so to speak. On Purim we have a mitzvah to drink to the point that we do not know the difference between the two stages. We have to drink to know that all is from Hashem. This is the point of Purim. Even if Hashem’s name is not mentioned in the Megillah, everything is from Hashem.

Drinking More Than Usual – Falling Asleep

The Rama[44] says one should drink more than usual and thus fall asleep. This is the opinion of other poskim as well.[45] However, sleeping without drinking at all does not accomplish anything.[46]

Getting Drunk is Not Allowed

The Orchos Chaim[47] (and others)[48] says drinking to the point of getting drunk is the greatest aveirah one can do since it causes giluy arayos, murder, etc. One should only drink more than he usually does.

Obligation or Mitzvah

Many maintain that there is no obligation to drink, but if one does so he has fulfilled a mitzvah.[49] However, some argue that the term chayiv in the Gemorah and Shulchan Aruch clearly indicate that it is in fact an obligation. Therefore, the Aruch Hashulchan[50] says there is an obligation is to drink, but every person has the leeway to choose how much he wishes to drink.[51]

Avoid Drinking

When one drinks to excess, he cannot perform mitzvos properly. Therefore, one who knows that by drinking he will not properly perform the mitzvos of netilas yadayim, bentching,[52] and mincha or maariv,[53] it is better than he should not get drunk.[54] One who wishes to drink should make sure the mitzvos are accomplished first and then he can drink.[55]

Reasons to Drink

Why do we drink on Purim? One reason is offered by the Avudraham[56] (quoted by others as well).[57] The story of the megillah was influenced by wine. Vashti was removed from her role as queen through drinking of wine.[58] Esther took her place through a party.[59] So too the fall of Haman was through wine. Therefore, we drink on Purim to remember that the miracles happened to the Jews through wine. [60]

The Chasam Sofer[61] explains that the Jews in the time of Achashveirosh attended his seuda and got drunk. Therefore, we have a mitzvah to drink to rectify the aveirah which was committed at that time,

Harav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach zt’l[62] says that Purim was established during the time of golus and it is not possible to be joyous while we are in golus. Therefore, we drink to forget about the fact that we are in golus and then we can be joyous properly.

Harav Moshe Shternbuch Shlita[63] explains that a sober person is aware of his true feelings and his surroundings, and uses his intellect to hide his feelings. When he is drunk and has no control over his intellect, he cannot hide his feeling, and his true essence emerges. Even without our intellect, we should be close to the Torah and choose the good.

Wine or Other Drinks

Most poskim say that one should drink wine on Purim as opposed to other intoxicating drinks.[64] This fits with the above opinions that maintain that we drink wine because the miracle happened with wine. A minority opinion says that the Gemorah does not designate wine, so one can drink any chamar medina (commonly consumed drink, such as beer and whiskey).[65] In addition, it is possible that the Gemorah only mentioned wine, because that was the primary source of alcohol at the time. This does not mean to exclude other intoxicating beverages.[66] The use of wine is not the overwhelming custom,[67] especially since one would need an excessive amount of wine in order to become intoxicated.[68]

The Aruch Hashulchan[69] says that one should stay away from whiskey since it causes one to vomit.

One does not fulfill the mitzvah of drinking with grape juice.[70]

One Who Does Not Drink Wine All Year

One who does not drink wine all year because of health reasons does not have to strain himself to drink wine on Purim.[71] Included in this is also someone who suffers from headaches. Since drinking does not bring him to joy he does not have to drink.[72] In addition, it brings him to pain.[73] If even a little wine causes him pain he does not have to do this either.[74] However, if one refrains from wine because of non-health reasons all year, then he should drink wine on Purim.[75]

Women

Although women are included in the mitzvos of the day of Purim,[76] this does not apply to drinking.[77] Women who wish to drink should only drink a minute amount.[78]

Children

The mitzvah of drinking on Purim does not apply to a child and one does not have to be mechanech a child to drink on Purim.[79]

When

The Rambam[80] seems to imply that alcohol should be consumed during the Purim seuda.[81] However, the Gemorah which mentions the obligation to drink does not make any connection to the Purim seuda, nor does the Shulchan Aruch. Some argue that the fact that the Megillah describes Purim as a day of party and joy[82] shows that drinking can be done all day.[83] The overwhelming custom is to drink throughout the day of Purim.[84]

One wonders why people drink at night as well, since this mitzvah is included in the other mitzvos of Purim which apply during the day.[85]

Even Those Who Drink- With a Cheshbon

Even those who drink should not drink on Purim just for the fun of drinking. This brings to lightheadedness, and one neglects the other mitzvos of the day.[86] The Rishonim who drank of Purim did not do so with lightheadedness.[87] Drinking on Purim is not a heter to drink without a cheshbon. It brings about chillul Hashem if one does not act properly, especially in public.[88]

Father Does Not Want Child To Drink

If a father demands that his son not drink on Purim, it is questionable whether the son is obligated to obey. Generally, if a father tells his son not to do a mitzvah the son does not have to listen, because both are commanded in mitzvos.[89] However, this rule does not apply to drinking on Purim, and the son has to obey his father.[90] The reason is that one can fulfill the mitzvah by drinking more than he usually does.[91] If the father does not want his son to drink at all the halacha may be different.

Drinking and Performing Mitzvos

A person who is totally inebriated cannot pasken,[92] daven,[93] be a shatz,[94] carry a sefer Torah,[95] and be a judge.[96] One who drinks more than a reviis and is a bit woozy cannot daven until the wine is out of his system, but if he did daven his tefillah is valid, as long as he can speak before a king.[97] If he cannot talk properly before a king, he is considered drunk and may not daven[98] or say krias shema.[99] He is allowed to bentch;[100] nevertheless, it is proper to wait until the wine leaves his system if he drank a lot.[101] He does not count toward a minyan to bentch, but does count for a zimun of three.[102]

Obviously, getting drunk does not excuse anyone from any mitzvah. Therefore, saying loshon hara is forbidden on Purim.[103]

Vomited

One who vomited before he made a beracha achrona does not make a beracha achrona since it is unclear how much he threw up and how much he has left in his stomach.[104]

Drinking By Gedolim

Many gedolim had the custom to get drunk on Purim.[105] However, they drank with a cheshbon and never succumbed to kalus rosh. The Chofetz Chaim zt”l did not get drunk. He used to pour some wine to all the guests and said this is for Shabbos, and he would then fill another glass and say this is for Purim in order to drink more than usual, and then he went to sleep.[106]

Making a Beracha at Each Home

An interesting question arises with regard to groups who collect money on Purim and drink in each house (one should not offer them drinks-see below). Is a beracha required in each home? Should he recite a beracha achrona at the last house? This question involves many variables and this is not the place to discuss it. One possible solution is to have in mind that he wants to drink in every home, and he should drink less than 3.3 ounces in each home. This way, no beracha achrona would be required.[107]

Get Involved

The Torah says, “You must not stand idly by your friend’s blood.”[108] If another person is in danger you have to help him out. Do not allow a drunken person to drive. In addition, one should not offer alcoholic beverages to groups who collect on Purim.[109]

Lying About Knowing Between Cursed Haman and Blessed Mordechai

If one asks you on Purim if you know the difference between cursed Haman and boruch Mordechai you can say no.[110]

Doing Damage When Drinking

Many drunken people get out of control, and even damage another person’s property. The question arises whether he is responsible to pay for the damage, or since he was drunk due to the simcha of Purim he is not responsible.

If the damage was unintentional,[111] then he is exempt from payment,[112] if he caused minor damage.[113] There is an opinion in the poskim that exempts him even for physical damage,[114] while others are stringent.[115]

This only applies if one drinks at least more than usual, not if he drinks a little.[116]

The definition of damaging due to joy is unclear.[117] In any case, the Aruch Hashulchan[118] says that in his days the joy we have for Purim is not the type of joy which would exempt one from paying for damage.

In addition, one who grabs food or drink from his friend on Purim[119] is not considered stealing.[120] One can make a beracha on it as well. However, the poskim say that a person who is careful should refrain from such activity on Purim.[121] Here too, the Aruch Hashulchan[122] says that this leniency is not applicable today.

Drunk and Gave Out A lot of Money

It can happen that one gets drunk to the point that he does not know what he is doing and he may have given out a lot of money on Purim. He may in fact have a right to reclaim the money. When this situation arises one should discuss it with his Rav. [123]

Driving Groups Around and Not Drinking

Hundreds of groups collect money on Purim. The Jewish driver will not be drinking,[124] and will not be able to fulfill the mitzvah of drinking on Purim, especially if the group collects during the seuda. Is this permitted? There is no mitzvah to collect money on Purim but there is a mitzvah to drink. One option is to finish collecting early so one can drink, or drink later that night even though it may not be part of any seuda and just a Purim chagigah.[125]

Torah Reasons Not to Drink

We are required to protect our health, and therefore one should refrain from drinking too much alcohol. In addition, according to the law of the land one is not allowed to give alcohol to minors. This is enforced by the halacha of dina d’malchusa dina. These and other obvious reasons demanding that we limit our alcohol intake, or fulfill the mitzvah in any of the ways detailed above.

Conclusion

It is impossible to say that chazal would demand of us to drink to the point of losing all feeling for what we are doing, which brings one to lightheadedness and other averios.[126] If one can drink and maintain control, then it may be permitted. After all is said and done, one should drink either to the point of getting drunk and then stopping, or drink a little more than usual. One who only wishes to drink a little has also fulfilled his obligation, especially according to those poskim who maintain that the incident in the Gemorah is not halachic.

Every year, hatzalah responds to calls for people who drank so much alcohol that they were in critical medical condition. Is it worth it? NO.

What Drinking Too Much Alcohol Does To Your Health[127]

Alcohol, or ethyl alcohol (ethanol), refers to the intoxicating ingredient found in wine, beer and hard liquor. Alcohol arises naturally from carbohydrates when certain micro-organisms metabolize them in the absence of oxygen, called fermentation.

Alcohol is metabolized extremely quickly by the body. Unlike foods, which require time for digestion, alcohol needs no digestion and is quickly absorbed. About 20 percent is absorbed directly across the walls of an empty stomach and can reach the brain within one minute.

Once alcohol reaches the stomach, it begins to break down the alcohol. This process reduces the amount of alcohol entering the blood by approximately 20%. (In addition, about 10% of the alcohol is expelled in the breath and urine.

Alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the upper portion of the small intestine. The alcohol-laden blood then travels to the liver via the veins and capillaries of the digestive tract, which affects nearly every liver cell. The liver cells are the only cells in our body that can produce enough of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize alcohol at an appreciable rate.

Though alcohol affects every organ of the body, its most dramatic impact is upon the liver. The liver cells normally prefer fatty acids as fuel, and package excess fatty acids as triglycerides, which they then route to other tissues of the body. However, when alcohol is present, the liver cells are forced to first metabolize the alcohol, letting the fatty acids accumulate, sometimes in huge amounts. Alcohol metabolism permanently changes liver cell structure, which impairs the liver’s ability to metabolize fats.

The liver is able to metabolize about ½ ounce of ethanol per hour (approximately one drink, depending on a person’s body size, food intake, etc.). If more alcohol arrives in the liver than the enzymes can handle, the excess alcohol travels to all parts of the body, circulating until the liver enzymes are finally able to process it.

Some Health Effects of Alcohol Consumption

Cancer

Increases the risk of cancer in the liver, pancreas, mouth, pharynx, larynx and esophagus.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Causes physical and behavioral abnormalities in the fetus.

Heart Disease

Raises blood pressure, blood lipids and the risk of stroke and heart disease in heavy drinkers. Heart disease is generally lower in light to moderate drinkers.

Kidney Disease

Enlarges the kidneys, alters hormone functions, and increases the risk of kidney failure.

Liver Disease

Causes fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Malnutrition

Increases the risk of protein-energy malnutrition; low intakes of protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, vitamin B6 and riboflavin, and impaired absorption of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and zinc.

Nervous Disorders

Causes neuropathy and dementia; impairs balance and memory.

Psychological Disturbances

Causes depression, anxiety and insomnia.

Kashrus Concerns

Up until recently, there were few kashrus concerns regarding whiskey. However, non-kosher enzymes can be added to aid in the fermentation process. In addition, some wine can be added to the liquor in order to classify it as a wine product with a lower tax. Furthermore, whiskey is sometimes aged in wine casks.[128]

The following liquors are accepted without kosher certification:

All varieties of domestic whiskeys are acceptable. All silver tequila is acceptable. Domestic vodka produced from grain spirits is acceptable.

The following liquors require kosher certification:

Imported vodkas require certification. Wines, liqueurs, flavored spirits and brandies require kosher certification.

[1] For a video put together by the Yehuda Mond Foundation on the dangers of drinking see http://yehudamondfoundation.org/lechaim.asp.

[2] Refer to Vaykira Rabbah 12:1, Bamidbar Rabbah 10:1, Meseches Kesubos 65a, Megillah 12b, Niddah 16b, Eiruvin 64a.

[3] Shulchan Aruch 272:8.

[4] Tehillim 104:15. Refer to Bereishis Rabbah 29.

[5] Refer to Meseches Bava Basra 58b, see Bava Basra 12b.

[6] Bereishis 9:20.

[7] For additional sources which speaks about wine and its effects see Yeshayahu 28:3:7, Shmuel 1:1:14, Mishlei 23:29-35.

[8] Bereishis 19:35.

[9] Refer to Vayikra Rabbah 20:9.

[10] Yalkut Shemoni Noach 61.

[11] Meseches Berochos 40a.

[12] Hilchos Yom Tov 6:20.

[13] Meseches Berochos 31a.

[14] Hilchos De’os 5:3.

[15] Vayikra 10:9.

[16] Meseches Sanhedrin 70a.

[17] Meseches Pesachim 109a.

[18] 13.

[19] Refer to Meseches Eiruvin 65a.

[20] 51b. Refer to Meseches Pesachim 92a.

[21] Meseches Megillah 7b.

[22] There is an opinion that holds the Gemorah does not say “lhishtakeir” – to get drunk it says “l’besumi” – which means get high. (Haskama of the Gerrer Rebbe zt”l to sefer Piskei Teshuva, also see Yesod V’shoresh Huavodah 12:8). Refer to Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 327.

[23] Refer to Sharei Hamoadim pages 124-135 in great depth. Also see L’bisumi B’puryah pages 34-37.

[24] Meseches Megillah ibid. Also see Meiri Meseches Megillah 7b. Refer to Moadim L’Simcha 3:pages 442-447.

[25] Also see Teshuvos V’hanhagos 4:173.

[26] Halichos Shlomo Moadim 19:footnote 77, Shalmei Moed page 289.

[27] Ran Meseches Megillah page 6, Baal Hameor, Shibuley Haleket 201, Bach O.C. 695, Taz 2, Aruch Hashulchan 3. See Shaarei Teshuva 2.

[28] Meseches Megillah 7b. See Biur Halacha “ad.”

[29] Rif Meseches Megillah, Rosh 1:8, Rambam Hilchos Megillah 2:15, Tur 695, Shulchan Aruch 695:2, Yosef Ometz 1101. Refer to Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 325. See Moadim V’zemanim 2:175, Divrei Yatziv 2:297.

[30] 695:2.

[31] 695.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Kol Bo 45, Bach, Orchos Chaim brought in Bais Yosef 695. Refer to Shevet HaLevi 10:107.

[34] Refer to Korbon Nesanel Meseches Megillah 1:10, Aruch Hashulchan 5, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 56:91.

[35] Refer to Tosfas Meseches Megillah 7b “d’lo,” Maharsha Meseches Megillah 7b “m’chayiv,” Bais Yosef 695. See Kaf Hachaim 16, Moadim L’simcha 3:pages 421-423, Sharei Hamoadim pages 113-117.

[36] 695.

[37] Shulchan Aruch 695:2.

[38] See Sharei Teshuva 695:2.

[39] Darchei Moshe 695:1, Magen Avraham 3, Elya Rabbah 2, Be’er Heitiv 2, Shaar Hatzion 5. Refer to Avudraham Purim.

[40] 695:1, Mishnah Berurah 4, see Be’er Heitiv 2.

[41] Meseches Megillah 7b.

[42] Modanei Shlomo Purim page 123.

[43] Teshuvos V’hanhagos 4:173:page 165.

[44] Darchei Moshe 695:1, 695:2.

[45] Rambam Hilchos Megillah 2:15, Yam Shel Shlomo Meseches Bava Kamma 3;3, Pri Megadim M.Z. 3, Levush 2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 142:6, Mishnah Berurah 5, Aruch Hashulchan 5, Moadim V’zemanim 2:190.

[46] Mekroei Kodesh 44, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 57:93, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 326.

[47] Brought in Bais Yosef 695.

[48] Kol Bo 45, Yesod Veshoresh Huavodah 12:8, see Levush 2, Aruch Hashulchan 5.

[49] Hago’es Mamonei Hilchos Megillah 2:15:2, Maharil 56, Darchei Moshe 695:1, Biur Halacha “v’chayiv,” Kaf Hachaim 15, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 327.

[50] 695:4.

[51] See Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 327.

[52] Moreh Betzbah 307, Pela Yoetz Purim.

[53] See Noheg Katzon Yosef page 203.

[54] Elya Rabbah 2, Matei Moshe 1012, Chai Adom 155:30, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 142:6, Mishnah Berurah 4, Biur Halacha “ad, ” Kaf Hachaim 17. Refer to Toras Hamoadim Purim page 341:3. See Noheg Katzon Yosef page 203.

[55] Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 332.

[56] Purim.

[57] Elya Rabbah 1, Matei Moshe 1012, Chai Adom 155:30, Taamei Haminhagim 891:pages 381-382, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 142:6, Biur Halacha “chayiv.” See Meiri Meseches Megillah 7b.

[58] Megillas Esther 1:10.

[59] Megillas Esther 2:18.

[60] For many other reasons see Moadim L’simcha 3:pages 407-415.

[61] Toras Moshe on Purim.

[62] Halichos Shlomo Moadim 19:footnote 79.

[63] Moadim V’zemanim 2:190.

[64] Rashi Meseches Megillah 7b “l’besumi,” Rokeach 237, Radvaz 1:462, Rambam Hilchos Megillah 2:15, Shalmei Moed page 287, Moadim V’zemanim 2:190, see Rivevos Ephraim 1:195:2, 8:page 478:2.

[65] Shivili Dovid 695:3. Refer to Shevet Hakehasi 6:258, Lehoros Nosson 9:21-22, Peer Eitz Chaim O.C. 36, Moadei Yeshurin page 50.

[66] Nemukei Orach Chaim 695:3:page 265, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 56:92, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 328, see Lehoros Nosson 9:21-22.

[67] Mekroei Kodesh 44.

[68] Rivevos Ephraim 7:360:1:1, see Rivevos Ephraim 3:465:1.

[69] 695:5.

[70] Shevet HaLevi 10:107:2, Shalmei Moed page 288, Halichos Shlomo Moadim 19:footnote 76, Rivevos Ephraim 8:600.

[71] Leket Yosher 1:page 157, Shaarei Teshuva 695:2, Yosef Ometz 1101, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 329.

[72] Refer to Moadim V’zemanim 2:190.

[73] Mekadesh Yisroel ibid.

[74] Mekadesh Yisroel ibid.

[75] Shevet HaLevi 10:106:2. See Oz Nedberu 5:42.

[76] Refer to Meseches Megillah 4a, Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 695:14.

[77] Rivevos Ephraim 1:458, 4:173:10, 53, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 334, Moadim V’zemanim 2:190, Natei Gavriel Purim 73:4, Shevet HaLevi 10:18:2, Shulchan Aruch Hamekutzar 123:footnote 19. See Shaar Hatzion 199:6.

[78] Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 58:97, Chazzon Ovadia Purim page 176.

[79] Moadim V’zemanim 2:190, Teshuvos V’hanhagos 3:229, Natei Gavriel Purim 73:4:footnote 10.

[80] Hilchos Megillah 2:15. Refer to Hisoreros Teshuva 1:6, Rivevos Ephraim 7:214, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 57:93.

[81] If one is drunk how will he recite birchos hamazon (Refer to Hisoreros Teshuva 1:6, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 57:93, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 332). See Yesod V’shoresh Huavodah 12:8.

[82] Esther 9:17.

[83] Sharei Hamoadim page 112.

[84] Avnei Yushpe 6:106:4, Moadim L’Simcha 3:pages 430-431, Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 333, 346 Halichos Shlomo Moadim 19:footnote 28, Shalmei Moed page 287, Modanei Shlomo Purim page 124. Refer to Natei Gavriel teshuvas – Purim 24:pages 571-574.

[85] Sharei Yemei HaPurim page 75:4. See Magen Avraham 696:15, Mishnah Berurah 24.

[86] Matei Moshe 1012.

[87] Matei Moshe 1012.

[88] Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 330.

[89] Shulchan Aruch Y.D. 240:15-16.

[90] Halichos Shlomo Moadim 19:25, Shalmei Moed page 288.

[91] Ibid:footnote 38.

[92] Meseches Krisos 13a.

[93] Meseches Berochos 31a.

[94] Rambam 165.

[95] Ibid.

[96] Bach (Hayishonos) 41.

[97] Shulchan Aruch 99:3.

[98] Shulchan Aruch 99:1.

[99] Rama 99:1.

[100] In regards to saying a beracha see Rama 99:1, Mishnah Berurah 11, Taz 185:2.

[101] Refer to Shulchan Aruch 185:5, Mishnah Berurah 6.

[102] Mishnah Berurah 99:10.

[103] Sharei Hamoadim page 122.

[104] Sharei Yemei HaPurim page 77. Refer to Meseches Chagigah 5a about vomiting in public.

[105] Refer to Orchos Rabbeinu 3:page 57:94-95, Moadim L’Simcha 3:pages 437-442.

[106] Hanhagos HaChofetz Chaim page 181. See Shalmei Moed page 288.

[107] Refer to Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 336-337.

[108] Vayikra 19:16.

[109] Refer to www.dontserveteens.gov.

[110] Maharsaha Chiddushei Agados Meseches Bava Metziah ibid “b’purya.” Refer to Titen Emes L’Yaakov page 52:26. See Moadim V’zemanim 6:109 who explains this opinion.

[111] Magen Avraham 8, Mishnah Berurah 14.

[112] Rama 695:2, Matei Moshe 1013, see Bais Yosef 695. Refer to Meseches Succah 45a, Rashi “miyad, Tosfas “miyad,” Shulchan Aruch C.M. 378:9. See Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 7.

[113] Mishnah Berurah 695:13, see Refer to Bach (yeshonos) 62.

[114] Magen Avraham 7. Refer to Bach (yeshonos) 62.

[115] Aruch Hashulchan 10, see Elya Rabbah 15.

[116] Modanei Shlomo Purim page 124.

[117] Halichos Shlomo Moadim 2:19:footnote 77.

[118] 695:10.

[119] This includes the from reading the megillah until after the seuda – two nights and one day (Mishnah Berurah 696:32).

[120] Rama 696:8.

[121] Mishnah Berurah 696:31.

[122] 696:12. See Toras HaYeshiva 13:14, Chazzon Ovadia Purim page 208.

[123] Refer to Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 339.

[124] This is obviously ossur and no need to discuss this here (Refer to Natei Gavriel Purim 73:6).

[125] Refer to Mekadesh Yisroel Purim 343.

[126] Yesod V’shoresh Huavodah 12:8.

[127] Refer to http://www.healthchecksystems.com/alcohol.htm, http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm.

[128] Refer to Igros Moshe Y.D. 1:62-64, Minchas Yitzchok 2:28:13.

Rabbi Moishe D. Lebovits, a musmach of Rabbi Yisroel Belsky and Yeshiva Torah Vodaas. Currently he serves as a Rabbinical Administrator for KOF-K Kosher Supervision. Halachically Speaking is a monthly publication seen by tens of thousands around the world. For Halachically Speaking seforim see www.israelbookshoppublications.com For other articles and to subscribe for free see thehalacha.com To contact Rabbi Lebovits, please email [email protected]

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